Who was Luke in the New Testament?


By BibleAsk Team


Luke, the author of the third Gospel in the New Testament, holds a unique place in biblical history. His Gospel offers a meticulous and compassionate account of the life, teachings, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. This comprehensive narrative has been a cornerstone for Christian faith and theology. In this exploration, we delve into the identity of this man, examining his background, role in the early Christian community, and the significant contributions he made through his Gospel.

Identity and Background

Luke’s identity and background are not explicitly detailed in the Gospel itself, but various clues can be gleaned from the text and other New Testament passages. Traditionally, he is believed to have been a Gentile, a non-Jewish person, and a companion of the Apostle Paul. Paul’s letters make references to a “Luke, the beloved physician” (Colossians 4:14, NKJV), indicating that the latter had a medical profession.

His Gospel exhibits a distinctive focus on compassion, the marginalized, and the role of women. Some scholars suggest that these emphases may reflect his own interests and background. As a physician, his attention to healing miracles and the physical aspects of Jesus’ ministry could be influenced by his medical training.

A Companion of Paul

Luke’s association with the Apostle Paul is evident in the “we” passages found in the Book of Acts. These passages indicate that the author was a firsthand witness to certain events, including Paul’s travels and missionary journeys. For example, Acts 16:10-17, where the narrative shifts to the first-person plural (“we”), suggests Luke’s presence with Paul during his mission in Philippi.

The collaboration between Luke and Paul underscores this disciple’s role not only as a physician but also as a committed man and chronicler of the early Christian movement. Their partnership contributed significantly to the spread of Christianity, with his vital role in recording and preserving the stories of Jesus and the early Christian community.

His Gospel

The Gospel of Luke is a rich and detailed account that differs in many aspects from the other synoptic Gospels (Matthew and Mark). It begins with a prologue that expresses his intention to provide an orderly and accurate account of the events surrounding Jesus’ life (Lu. 1:1-4). Luke traces Jesus’ genealogy back to Adam, emphasizing the universal scope of Jesus’ mission as the Savior of all humanity.

The Gospel of Luke is often characterized by its focus on compassion, mercy, and the inclusion of marginalized groups. The parables of the Good Samaritan (Lu. 10:25-37) and the Prodigal Son (Lu. 15:11-32) are quintessential examples of his emphasis on God’s mercy and grace. Additionally, he places a special emphasis on the role of women in Jesus’ ministry, highlighting their significant contributions and interactions with Jesus.

Theological Themes

Several theological themes permeate the Gospel of Luke. One prominent theme is the universality of salvation. Luke portrays Jesus as the Savior for all people, regardless of their social status, ethnicity, or gender. This inclusivity is evident in Luke’s account of Jesus’ interactions with tax collectors, sinners, and outcasts.

Another key theme is the Holy Spirit’s role in Jesus’ life and the early Christian community. Luke highlights the Spirit’s guidance in Jesus’ ministry (Lu. 4:1, 14, 18) and its empowering presence among the disciples after Jesus’ ascension (Acts 2:1-4).

Luke’s Gospel also underscores the importance of prayer, with Jesus being portrayed as a model of regular communion with the Father. The Gospel includes unique parables on persistence in prayer (Lu. 11:5-13, 18:1-8), emphasizing the disciples’ need for constant communication with God.

Contribution to the New Testament

Luke’s Gospel is just one part of his significant contributions to the New Testament. He is also credited with writing the Acts of the Apostles, which serves as a sequel to his Gospel. Acts provides a historical account of the early Christian church, detailing the spread of the gospel, the activities of the apostles, and the challenges faced by the burgeoning Christian community.

Luke’s meticulous research and commitment to accuracy have made his writings invaluable to scholars, theologians, and believers alike. His dedication to preserving the details of Jesus’ life and the early Christian movement has left an indelible mark on Christian theology and the understanding of the New Testament.


Luke emerges from the pages of the New Testament as a multifaceted figure—a physician, a companion of Paul, and a meticulous chronicler of the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. His Gospel stands as a testament to the universality of God’s redemptive plan, emphasizing compassion, inclusion, and the transformative power of the Holy Spirit. As we study the Gospel of Luke and the broader context of his contributions, we gain a deeper appreciation for the man behind the pen—a devoted follower of Christ who played a crucial role in shaping the early Christian narrative.

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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