Who was Abraham in the Old Testament?


By BibleAsk Team


Abraham is a significant and revered figure in the Bible. His story is primarily found in the book of Genesis in the Old Testament, and it spans several chapters, detailing his life, family, and his relationship with God. Let’s explore the life of Abraham, drawing on key Bible references.

Abraham, originally named Abram, was born in the city of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia. His story begins in Genesis 11:26-32, where his genealogy is traced back to Shem, the son of Noah. Abraham’s father, Terah, took him and his wife Sarai (later renamed Sarah) along with his nephew Lot, and they set out for the land of Canaan. However, they settled in Haran, where Terah died (Genesis 11:31-32).

God’s Covenant with Abraham

The narrative of Abraham unfolds when God calls him to leave his homeland and go to the land that God would show him. In Genesis 12:1-3, God makes a profound promise to Abraham: “I will make you into a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse, and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you.”

This covenant marks the beginning of God’s special relationship with Abraham and sets the stage for the rest of his story. God reaffirms this covenant multiple times throughout Abraham’s life (Genesis 13:14-17; 15:1-21; 17:1-22).

The Journey to Canaan and Egypt

Abraham, guided by his faith in God’s promises, journeyed to Canaan. There, he faced a famine and temporarily sojourned to Egypt (Genesis 12:10-20). Despite his shortcomings and deceitfulness regarding his relationship with Sarah, God protected him, and he returned to Canaan (Genesis 13).

The Promise of a Son

One of the central aspects of God’s covenant with Abraham was the promise of descendants. However, as time passed, Abraham and Sarah remained childless. In Genesis 15:2-6, Abraham expresses his concern to God, and God reassures him, stating that his descendants will be as numerous as the stars. Abraham’s faith in God’s promise is credited to him as righteousness.

The Birth of Ishmael and Circumcision

Lack of patience and faith led Sarah to offer her maidservant Hagar as a surrogate, resulting in the birth of Ishmael (Genesis 16). However, God’s covenant was specifically tied to a son from Sarah. In Genesis 17, God reiterates the promise and institutes the covenant of circumcision as a sign of the commitment between God and Abraham’s descendants.

The Three Visitors and the Promise of Isaac

In Genesis 18, three visitors, one of whom is identified as the Lord, appear to the patriarch. They announce the impending birth of a son to the elderly Sarah. Despite Sarah’s disbelief, Isaac is born, and his name means “laughter,” reflecting Sarah’s reaction to the news (Genesis 21:1-7).

The Test of Faith

One of the most challenging episodes in the patriarch’s life is found in Genesis 22, known as the “Binding of Isaac.” God tests his faith by asking him to sacrifice his beloved son Isaac. The patriarch, demonstrating unwavering trust, obeys God, but at the last moment, an angel intervenes, sparing Isaac’s life. This event highlights the patriarch’s absolute devotion and foreshadows God’s own sacrifice for humanity (John 3:16).

Then God reaffirmed His covenant with Abraham saying, “By Myself I have sworn, says the Lord, because you have done this thing, and have not withheld your son, your only son blessing I will bless you, and multiplying I will multiply your descendants as the stars of the heaven and as the sand which is on the seashore; and your descendants shall possess the gate of their enemies. In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice” (Genesis 22:16-18).

Sarah’s Death and Isaac’s Marriage

After Sarah’s death, the patriarch secures a wife for Isaac, ensuring the continuity of God’s covenant with his descendants (Genesis 24).

The Patriarch’s Death and Legacy

Abraham lived to be 175 years old (Genesis 25:7). Before his death, he took another wife, Keturah, and had several children. His primary heir, however, was Isaac. His death is recorded in Genesis 25:8-10. His significance extends beyond his personal story. He is considered a model of faith (Hebrews 11:8-19) and is often referred to as the “friend of God” (James 2:23). His lineage includes prominent figures such as Isaac, Jacob, and the twelve patriarchs of Israel. Moreover, his story serves as a foundation for understanding the concepts of faith, obedience, and the enduring nature of God’s promises.


Abraham’s life, as depicted in the Bible, is a tapestry of faith, obedience, and divine promises. His journey from Ur to Canaan, the covenant with God, the birth of Isaac, and the test of faith at Mount Moriah collectively shape the foundation of the true faith. His story is a testament to the enduring power of faith and God’s faithfulness to fulfill His promises.

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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