Who was the pharaoh of the Exodus?

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There are no contemporary, non-Biblical records of the Exodus that exist today for the Egyptians never recorded events that were unfavorable to them. But the chronology of the pharaohs of the Eighteenth Dynasty, which is based on the best available evidence, can shed some light on this question.

The Pharaoh Ahmose who fully liberated Egypt from the rile of the Hyksos was followed by Amenhotep I (1546-1525 B.C.). His son Thutmose I (1525-1508 B.C.), was the first king to record the use of Asiatic slaves in the construction of his temples. It is possible that these slaves were Hebrews. Thutmose I was followed by Thutmose II (1508-1504 B.C.), after whose death Hatshepsut, a daughter of Thutmose I, ruled Egypt peacefully for 22 years (1504-1482 B.C.).

It could be that Hatshepsut was the foster mother of Moses, since the first 40 years of his life came during the reigns of Thutmose I, Thutmose II, and Hatshepsut. According to the Biblical chronology, Moses escaped from Egypt a few years before the beginning of the reign of Thutmose III.

At the beginning of Hatshepsut’s rule, the priests revolted against her forcing her to accept the rule of her nephew, Thutmose III. If, Hatshepsut was the princess who adopted Moses, this revolt of the priests could have been the result of Moses’ rejection of the priestly duties in the royal court.

Thutmose III became the ruler (1482-1450 B.C.) and like his grandfather, he recorded that Asiatic slaves were employed in his temple-building program. He could have been the Pharaoh from whom Moses escaped Egypt to land of of Median.

Thutmose III was followed by his son Amenhotep II (1450-1425 B.C.). His rule matches that of the Pharaoh of the Exodus. It was not the crown prince but another son of Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV (1425-1412 B.C.), that followed him on the throne. This could have been due to the slaying of all first-born sons in the tenth plague that was inflicted by God on Egypt.

In His service,
BibleAsk Team


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