Who was Jeroboam in the Bible?


By BibleAsk Team


Jeroboam, a significant figure in the Bible, played a crucial role in the history of ancient Israel. His story unfolds in the pages of the Old Testament, primarily in the books of 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles. To understand his life, it is essential to look into his background, rise to power, actions, and the impact he had on the divided kingdom of Israel.

Early Life

Jeroboam’s story begins in the book of 1 Kings, Chapter 11, where we learn about his humble origins. He was the son of Nebat, a member of the tribe of Ephraim, and an industrious man who caught the attention of King Solomon. However, his life took a turn when the prophet Ahijah conveyed a divine message to him through a symbolic act involving a torn garment (1 Kings 11:29-39). God revealed that He would rend the kingdom from Solomon’s hands and give ten tribes to him, leaving only one tribe under Solomon’s descendants for the sake of David.

Rise to Power

As prophesied, Jeroboam’s fortunes changed dramatically. Solomon sought to kill him after learning of the prophecy, prompting Jeroboam to flee to Egypt (1 Kings 11:40). He remained in exile until Solomon’s death, at which point he returned to Israel. The death of Solomon ushered in a time of political turmoil, providing the opportunity for Jeroboam to ascend to a leadership role.

Anointed King

In 1 Kings 12, we witness the divided kingdom of Israel emerging. The northern tribes approached Rehoboam, Solomon’s son, requesting relief from the heavy burdens imposed by Solomon. Rehoboam’s harsh response led to the ten northern tribes breaking away, forming the northern kingdom of Israel. In this pivotal moment, the people turned to Jeroboam, remembering the prophecy that he would lead them.

Jeroboam’s reign begins with his anointing as king over the newly formed kingdom of Israel (1 Kings 12:20). This marked the fulfillment of God’s promise to him through the prophet Ahijah. However, his actions would later reveal his apostasy.

The Golden Calves

One of the defining aspects of his reign was his decision to establish alternative worship centers, particularly in Bethel and Dan. Fearing that the reunification of the people through pilgrimage to Jerusalem might undermine his rule, he devised a plan to create two golden calves, encouraging the people to worship at these new sites (1 Kings 12:26-33).

This move mirrored the idolatry that plagued Israel’s history, reminiscent of the golden calf incident during the Exodus. This choice to deviate from God’s prescribed worship in Jerusalem set a dangerous precedent, leading the northern kingdom down a path of disobedience.

Prophetic Warnings and Judgments

Jeroboam’s actions did not go unnoticed by God. The Lord sent prophets to confront him and warn of the consequences of his disobedience. One such prophet was an unnamed man of God from Judah, who delivered a message of judgment against Jeroboam’s altar in Bethel (1 Kings 13).

Later, Ahijah’s prophecy to Jeroboam took a darker turn. God revealed that due to Jeroboam’s sins, his descendants would suffer severe consequences, and his dynasty would come to an end (1 Kings 14:7-16).

Foreign Relations and Military Conflicts

Jeroboam’s reign also involved interactions with neighboring nations, notably Egypt and Syria. References to his alliances and conflicts can be found in 1 Kings 14:25-28. These interactions provide additional context for understanding the geopolitical landscape during Jeroboam’s rule.


Jeroboam’s legacy is one of mixed consequences. While he fulfilled God’s prophecy by becoming king and ruling over ten tribes, his decisions led Israel into idolatry and disobedience. His reluctance to trust in God’s promises and reliance on political strategies to secure his rule ultimately resulted in divine judgment.


Jeroboam’s story serves as a cautionary tale about the importance of fidelity to God’s commands and the potential pitfalls of compromising one’s faith for political expediency. His reign highlights the delicate balance between leadership, faithfulness, and the enduring consequences of disobedience.

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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