What were the Urim and Thummim?

Author: BibleAsk Team

Urim and Thummim

In the intricate tapestry of ancient Israelite religious practices, few artifacts evoke as much mystery and fascination as the Urim and Thummim. These objects, mentioned sporadically throughout the Hebrew Bible, hold a central place in the religious and political life of ancient Israel. In this comprehensive exploration, we delve into the historical, theological, and spiritual dimensions of the Urim and Thummim, seeking to discern their relevance for contemporary understanding.

I. Origins and Biblical References:

The earliest biblical references to the Urim and Thummim appear in the context of the high priestly garments described in the book of Exodus. Exodus 28:30 (NKJV) stipulates, “And you shall put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim, and they shall be over Aaron’s heart when he goes in before the Lord. So Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel over his heart before the Lord continually.”

II. Interpretations and Scholarly Perspectives:

The Urim and Thummim were precious stones that were placed on the ephod of the high priest’s garments in ancient Israel. The words Urim and Thummim mean, respectively, “light” and “perfection.” Through these two stones, God made known His will. A halo of light encircling the Urim was a token of the divine approval on matters brought before Him, and a cloud shadowing the Thummim was evidence of God’s disapproval. The breastplate was to the garments of the high priest what the mercy seat was to the sanctuary itself. On both, God revealed His glory and made known His will (Exodus 25:22; Psalms 80:1; Isaiah 37:16).

III. Priestly Mediation and Divine Revelation:

Central to the significance of the Urim and Thummim is their association with the high priest and the sanctuary (Numbers 27:21). As Exodus 28:30 indicates, they were placed within the breastplate of judgment worn by the high priest during sacred rituals. This placement underscores their role in facilitating communication between God and the people of Israel, as the high priest interceded on their behalf and sought divine guidance (Leviticus 8:8).

Moses received counsel directly from God, but Joshua, who came after him, was to go to the high priest as a mediator between him and God. The two stones are mentioned also in Moses’ dying blessing upon Levi (Deuteronomy 33:8).

IV. Historical Context and Ritual Practices:

In ancient Israelite society, the Urim and Thummim were likely utilized in conjunction with other ritual practices, such as sacrifices, prayers, and offerings. It is likely that the priests used the Urim and Thummim to find God’s will in the following incidents: Joshua 7:14-18; 1 Samuel 14:37-45; 28:6; 30:7, 8; 2 Samuel 21:1. Their use was reserved for significant occasions and crucial decisions, particularly those pertaining to matters of national importance, military campaigns, or legal disputes (Numbers 27:21, 1 Samuel 23:9-12).

V. Theological Significance and Divine Authority:

The presence of the Urim and Thummim within the high priest’s breastplate symbolized the sacred covenant between God and Israel, wherein divine guidance and wisdom were sought through the agency of the priesthood. Their use underscored the belief in divine providence and the conviction that God actively intervened in the affairs of His chosen people, guiding them along the path of righteousness and obedience (Ezra 2:63, Nehemiah 7:65).

VI. Legacy:

Despite their prominent role in ancient Israelite religion, the Urim and Thummim gradually fade from historical and literary prominence in later biblical texts. Their disappearance coincides with the decline of the centralized priesthood and the shifting dynamics of Israelite society following the Babylonian exile.

It should be noted that though Josephus does not specifically refer to these two stones by name, he does speak of the “shining” of the stones on the breastplate of the high priest, which “shining,” he says, ceased two centuries previously, owing to the prevailing iniquity (Antiquities iii. 8. 9).

VII. Contemporary Reflections and Spiritual Insights:

While the Urim and Thummim belong to the Israelite religious history, their enduring legacy continues to resonate with contemporary religious sensibilities. They serve as a reminder of the profound human longing for divine guidance, wisdom, and discernment in navigating life’s complexities and moral dilemmas. Moreover, they invite reflection on the nature of divine revelation and the ways in which God communicates with His people, both in ancient times and in the present age.

Today, God’s Word reveals His divine will to man. The Psalmist says, “Your word is a lamp to my feet And a light to my path” (Psalm 119:105). In addition God’s Spirit guides the believers to all His truth. Jesus affirms, “However, when He, the Spirit of truth, has come, He will guide you into all truth; for He will not speak on His own authority, but whatever He hears He will speak; and He will tell you things to come” (John 16:13).


In conclusion, the Urim and Thummim stand as enduring symbols of divine presence, authority, and mediation within ancient Israelite religion. Their significance extends far beyond their historical context, prompting theological reflection and spiritual inquiry. As we contemplate their legacy and theological implications, may we glean insights into the nature of divine revelation, the role of priesthood, and the enduring quest for spiritual discernment in our journey of faith (James 1:5).


  1. Exodus 28:30 (NKJV)
  2. 1 Samuel 28:6 (NKJV)
  3. Ezra 2:63 (NKJV)
  4. Deuteronomy 33:8 (NKJV)
  5. Leviticus 8:8 (NKJV)
  6. Numbers 27:21 (NKJV)
  7. 1 Samuel 23:9-12 (NKJV)
  8. Nehemiah 7:65 (NKJV)

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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