What does “you shall bruise His heel” mean?


By BibleAsk Team

The phrase “he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel” is found in Genesis 3:15 and is one of the most significant prophetic statements in the Bible. This verse is often referred to as the “protoevangelium,” which means “the first gospel.” It is seen as the first promise of a Redeemer who would ultimately defeat Satan and bring salvation to humanity. Understanding this passage requires exploring its immediate context, its theological implications, and how it is fulfilled in the New Testament.

Genesis 3:15 (NKJV)

“And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, And you shall bruise His heel.”

Context of Genesis 3:15

Genesis 3 recounts the fall of humanity. Adam and Eve, the first humans created by God, were deceived by the serpent (Satan) and ate from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, which God had forbidden. As a result, sin entered the world, and humanity experienced separation from God, as well as the introduction of death and suffering.

After the fall, God pronounces judgments upon the serpent, Eve, and Adam. In His judgment upon the serpent, God delivers the prophetic statement found in Genesis 3:15. This verse not only addresses the immediate context of the fall but also sets the stage for the unfolding story of redemption throughout the Bible.

Detailed Analysis of Genesis 3:15

Enmity Between the Serpent and the Woman

“And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed.”

  • Enmity: The term “enmity” indicates deep-seated hostility or opposition. This enmity is not just between the serpent and the woman but extends to their respective “seeds” or offspring.
  • The Serpent: Representing Satan, the serpent is the instigator of sin and rebellion against God.
  • The Woman: Eve, representing humanity, especially believers who would come to be known as the children of God.
  • Your Seed and Her Seed: “Your seed” refers to the offspring of the serpent, which can be interpreted as those who follow Satan or embody evil. “Her Seed” refers to a specific descendant from the woman, ultimately pointing to Jesus Christ.

The Crushing of the Serpent’s Head and the Bruising of the Heel

“He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel.”

  • He Shall Bruise Your Head: This indicates a fatal blow to the serpent. Crushing the head symbolizes a definitive and ultimate defeat.
  • You Shall Bruise His Heel: This indicates a wound that, while painful, is not fatal. It points to suffering inflicted upon the Seed of the woman, but not a final defeat.

Theological Implications of Genesis 3:15

Protoevangelium: The First Gospel

Genesis 3:15 is considered the first announcement of the Gospel. It contains the promise of redemption and the ultimate victory over sin and Satan through the work of Jesus Christ. This promise sets the trajectory for the rest of the biblical narrative.

The Battle Between Good and Evil

The enmity between the serpent and the woman, and between their respective seeds, represents the ongoing spiritual battle between good and evil. Throughout Scripture, this theme is developed, culminating in the victory of Christ over Satan.

The Promise of a Redeemer

The prophecy points to the coming of a Redeemer from the offspring of the woman. This Redeemer, Jesus Christ, would suffer (bruised heel) but ultimately defeat Satan (crushed head).

Fulfillment in the New Testament

The New Testament reveals the fulfillment of this prophecy in the person and work of Jesus Christ.

The Suffering of Christ

Jesus Christ experienced suffering and death on the cross, which can be seen as the bruising of His heel. This suffering was foretold by the prophets and is central to the Christian understanding of redemption.

Isaiah 53:5 (NKJV):

“But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; The chastisement for our peace was upon Him, And by His stripes we are healed.”

The Victory of Christ

Through His death and resurrection, Jesus Christ defeated Satan, sin, and death. This victory is seen as the crushing of the serpent’s head.

Colossians 2:15 (NKJV):

“Having disarmed principalities and powers, He made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them in it.”

Hebrews 2:14 (NKJV):

“Inasmuch then as the children have partaken of flesh and blood, He Himself likewise shared in the same, that through death He might destroy him who had the power of death, that is, the devil.”

The price of our redemption was very high. The Son of God left heaven and came to this earth to redeem mankind. The nail marks in His hands and feet and the scar in His side will be eternal reminders of the greatest sacrifice in which the serpent bruised Christ’s heel (John 20:25; Zechariah 13:6). But Christ rose triumphantly from the grave and His victory caused Him to crush Satan’s head. How infinitely loving was God! Divine justice required that sin should meet its penalty, but divine mercy had already found a way to redeem the fallen human race—by the voluntary sacrifice of the Son of God (1 Peter 1:20; 2 Timothy 1:9; Revelation 13:8).

The Ongoing Struggle and Ultimate Victory

While the ultimate victory was achieved through Christ’s resurrection, the struggle between good and evil continues in the lives of believers. The New Testament encourages Christians to resist Satan and assures them of their victory in Christ.

James 4:7 (NKJV):

“Therefore submit to God. Resist the devil and he will flee from you.”

1 Peter 5:8-9 (NKJV):

“Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil walks about like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour. Resist him, steadfast in the faith, knowing that the same sufferings are experienced by your brotherhood in the world.”

Historical and Theological Perspectives

Early Church Fathers

The early church fathers viewed Genesis 3:15 as a clear prophecy of Christ’s victory over Satan. For example, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and Augustine saw this verse as a foundational promise of the coming Messiah who would defeat the powers of evil.

Reformation and Beyond

Reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin also emphasized Genesis 3:15 as the first Gospel proclamation. They highlighted the promise of salvation through Christ as a thread running throughout the entire Bible, beginning with this verse.

Application for Believers

Assurance of Victory

Genesis 3:15 provides assurance to believers that Satan is ultimately defeated. While believers may face trials and temptations, they can have confidence in Christ’s victory.

Call to Spiritual Warfare

Believers are called to engage in spiritual warfare, resisting Satan and standing firm in their faith. This involves putting on the full armor of God.

Ephesians 6:11-13 (NKJV):

“Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand.”

Hope in the Promised Redeemer

The prophecy in Genesis 3:15 points to Jesus Christ as the promised Redeemer. This gives believers hope and assurance that God’s plan for redemption is fulfilled in Christ, and they can look forward to the ultimate defeat of all evil and the restoration of all things.

Revelation 21:4 (NKJV):

“And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying. There shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away.”


The phrase “he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel” in Genesis 3:15 is a profound prophetic statement that encapsulates the entire story of redemption. It introduces the conflict between good and evil, foretells the coming of a Redeemer, and promises ultimate victory over Satan. Throughout the Bible, this prophecy is echoed and fulfilled in the person and work of Jesus Christ, who through His death and resurrection, bruises the head of the serpent, securing eternal victory for all who believe in Him. This verse offers believers assurance of victory, a call to spiritual warfare, and hope in the fulfillment of God’s redemptive plan.

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In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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