Who was Ashtoreth in the Bible?


By BibleAsk Team


In Biblical times, Ashtoreth emerges as an enigmatic figure, often shrouded in mystery and veiled in symbolism. Mentioned several times in the Old Testament, particularly in the books of Judges, 1 Samuel, and 1 Kings, Ashtoreth is associated with both Canaanite and Phoenician religious practices.

Etymology and Origins

The name “Ashtoreth” is believed to be derived from the Semitic root word “ṯrḥ,” signifying “to tread” or “to stomp.” This linguistic connection implies a potential association with fertility and agricultural rituals, as the act of treading could symbolize the cultivation of the land. Ashtoreth is often identified with the Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar and the Phoenician goddess Astarte, both of whom are linked to fertility, love, and war.

Cultural Context

Understanding Ashtoreth necessitates contextualizing her within the cultural milieu of ancient Canaan and the surrounding regions. In Canaanite and Phoenician pantheons, Ashtoreth was venerated as a major deity, embodying the cyclical aspects of life, death, and rebirth. Her worship involved various rites and rituals, some of which included fertility rites to ensure bountiful harvests and prosperity for the community.

Scriptural Mentions

Ashtoreth is prominently mentioned in the context of Israel’s interaction with foreign cultures and their propensity to stray from monotheistic worship. The Bible recounts instances in the book of Judges where the Israelites “forsook the Lord and served the Baals and the Ashtoreths” (Judges 2:13). This departure from Yahweh’s worship led to a cycle of apostasy and divine judgment throughout the period of the judges.

Associations with Baal

One notable aspect of Ashtoreth’s biblical narrative is her frequent pairing with Baal, another deity worshipped in Canaanite and Phoenician cultures. The Bible reveals a recurring pattern wherein the Israelites engage in syncretistic worship, combining the adoration of Yahweh with the veneration of Baal and Ashtoreth. This syncretism becomes a recurrent stumbling block for the chosen people, drawing divine displeasure.

Temple of Solomon and Ashtoreth

The construction of Solomon’s temple provides another context for Ashtoreth’s presence. In 1 Kings 11:5 (NKJV), it is recorded that Solomon, in his later years, “went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.” This deviation from exclusive devotion to Yahweh marked a pivotal moment in Israel’s history, ultimately leading to the kingdom’s division.

Fertility Cults and Rituals

The worship of Ashtoreth was intertwined with fertility cults that often involved ritualistic practices. The Bible alludes to such practices in 1 Samuel 7:3, where Samuel implores the Israelites to “put away the foreign gods and Ashtoreths” and prepare their hearts for a sincere return to Yahweh. This underscores the seductive allure of foreign deities and the constant struggle of the Israelites to maintain their covenant fidelity.

Prophetic Condemnations

The prophetic voices within the Old Testament vehemently condemned the worship of Ashtoreth. In the book of 1 Kings 11:33 (NKJV), God declares judgment against Solomon, stating, “because they have forsaken Me, and worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians.” The ensuing consequences, including the division of the kingdom, serve as a sobering reminder of the dangers of compromising monotheistic faith.

Reforms Against Idle Worship

The first and second commandments clearly speak against idolatry, “You shall have no other gods before Me. “You shall not make for yourself a carved image—any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them nor serve them. For I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me, but showing mercy to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments” (Exodus 20:3-6).

The reforms against idolatry started in the time of judges when Gideon obeyed God’s command to “tear down the altar of Baal … and cut down the wooden image that is beside it” (Judges 6:25,26). And in the time of the kings, Asa “removed Maachah his grandmother from being queen mother, because she had made an obscene image of Asherah. And Asa cut down her obscene image and burned it by the Brook Kidron” (1 Kings 15:13).

Later on, King Josiah did great reforms and found favor in God’s eyes for he “commanded … to bring out of the temple of the Lord all the articles that were made for Baal, for Asherah, and for all the host of heaven; and he burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron” (2 Kings 23:1 –7). God blessed these godly leaders greatly for they helped save His children from reaping the deadly consequences of idolatry.

Archaeological Discoveries

The exploration of archaeological sites in the ancient Near East has yielded artifacts and inscriptions that shed light on the material culture associated with Ashtoreth worship. Excavations in regions like Ugarit and Sidon have unearthed evidence of temples dedicated to Ashtoreth, providing tangible links to the biblical accounts and corroborating the historical significance of this goddess in the religious landscape of the time.


In the vast expanse of biblical narratives, Ashtoreth emerges as a complex and symbolic figure, embodying the challenges faced by the Israelites in their journey toward monotheistic fidelity. The Bible serves as a valuable guide, unraveling the threads of Ashtoreth’s story and highlighting the perennial struggle between exclusive devotion to Yahweh and the allure of foreign deities. Ashtoreth stands as a cautionary symbol, urging us to ponder the consequences of spiritual compromise and the enduring relevance of faithfulness in the face of cultural and ideological challenges.

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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