Who divided the Bible into chapters and verses?


By BibleAsk Team

The division of the Bible into chapters and verses is a historical development that took place over several centuries and involved various individuals and committees. The process was not a single event but rather an evolving tradition that aimed to organize and reference the biblical text for easier navigation, study, and citation. The division into chapters and verses has greatly facilitated the use of the Bible for scholarly, religious, and literary purposes.

Early Attempts at Division

The earliest manuscripts of the Bible, particularly the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) and the Greek New Testament, did not have chapter or verse divisions. The text was written as continuous blocks of text. The need for a system of reference became apparent as the Bible became more widely circulated and studied.

Old Testament:

The division of the Old Testament into chapters can be traced back to the work of Stephen Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury, in the early 13th century. Langton, who served from 1207 to 1228, is credited with dividing the text into chapters as a way to facilitate reading and citation. His divisions were later incorporated into the Latin Vulgate, the standard Bible of the Western Christian Church for centuries.

However, Langton’s chapter divisions were not universally accepted, and different versions of the Bible had varying chapter arrangements. It wasn’t until the 16th century that the division into chapters became more standardized.

New Testament:

The New Testament was not initially divided into chapters. The first person to attempt such a division was the French printer Robert Estienne (also known as Stephanus) in the 16th century. In 1551, he introduced a verse division in his Greek New Testament, which later found its way into the Geneva Bible in 1560.

The Versification of the Bible

The division of the Bible into verses is a more recent development and was not part of the original manuscripts. The idea of dividing the text into verses for the sake of reference and citation gained traction during the 16th century.

Old Testament:

The Hebrew Bible was versified by a Jewish rabbi named Nathan in 1448. However, his system did not gain widespread acceptance. The most influential versification of the Old Testament was done by a Parisian printer named Isaac Nathan in 1551, who introduced a verse division in the Psalms.

New Testament:

The versification of the New Testament followed the work of Robert Estienne. In the 16th century, his son, Henri Estienne, further developed the verse divisions in the New Testament. The Geneva Bible, published in 1560, was one of the first English translations to adopt this versification, and it greatly influenced subsequent English Bibles.

Impact on the Bible’s Use

The division of the Bible into chapters and verses has greatly facilitated scholarly study, sermon preparation, and cross-referencing. It allows for precise citation and discussion of specific passages, making it easier for readers, scholars, and theologians to locate and reference particular verses.

Criticism and Challenges:

While the chapter and verse divisions have proven invaluable for reference, they also have their critics. Some argue that the divisions can artificially break up the flow of thought in the original texts, potentially leading to a fragmented understanding of the scripture. Additionally, the divisions were not part of the original inspired text, and their presence can sometimes lead to misinterpretations if verses are taken out of their larger context.


The division of the Bible into chapters and verses was a gradual process that involved the work of various individuals over several centuries. From Stephen Langton’s division of the Old Testament into chapters to Robert Estienne’s work on the New Testament and the subsequent development of verse divisions, the system has become an integral part of how people navigate and engage with the Bible. While the divisions have been praised for their utility, they are not without controversy, and scholars continue to debate their impact on the interpretation of the sacred texts.

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

We'd love your feedback, so leave a comment!

If you feel an answer is not 100% Bible based, then leave a comment, and we'll be sure to review it.
Our aim is to share the Word and be true to it.