Who was Zilpah in the Bible?


By BibleAsk Team


Zilpah, a lesser-known figure in the Bible, plays a significant role in the narrative of the patriarch Jacob and his complicated family dynamics. Mentioned in the book of Genesis, Zilpah was the handmaid of Leah, one of Jacob’s wives. While her presence may not be as prominent as other biblical characters, her story adds depth to the larger narrative of faith, relationships, and the unfolding of God’s plan.

Zilpah is first introduced in Genesis 29:24-25 when Leah gives birth to her first four sons. In her pursuit of bearing children to gain favor in Jacob’s eyes, Leah offers Zilpah as a concubine to Jacob. This arrangement was in accordance with the cultural practices of that time.

Genesis 29:24-25 (NKJV): “And Laban gave his maid Zilpah to his daughter Leah as a maid. So it came to pass in the morning, that behold, it was Leah. And he said to Laban, ‘What is this you have done to me? Was it not for Rachel that I served you? Why then have you deceived me?'”

Motherhood and Children

Zilpah becomes a mother through this unconventional arrangement and gives birth to two sons: Gad and Asher. The naming of these sons reflects the circumstances of their births and the emotions of Leah and Zilpah during that period.

Genesis 30:9-13 (NKJV): “When Leah saw that she had stopped bearing, she took Zilpah her maid and gave her to Jacob as wife. And Leah’s maid Zilpah bore Jacob a son. Then Leah said, ‘A troop comes!’ So she called his name Gad. And Leah’s maid Zilpah bore Jacob a second son. Then Leah said, ‘I am happy, for the daughters will call me blessed.’ So she called his name Asher.”

Jacob’s Prophecy

At the end of his life, Jacob called all of his sons to prophecy upon them. And to Gad and Asher he said, “Gad, a troop shall tramp upon him, but he shall triumph at last. “Bread from Asher shall be rich, and he shall yield royal dainties” (Genesis 49:19-20).

In these words, Jacob foretold that an enemy force will attack Gad, but the tribe will endure with patience, and they will successfully repel. Although the known history of the 12 tribes does not provide an information on this prophecy, the account given in 1 Chronicles 5:18–22 reveals that the Gadites illustrated bravery as foretold by their father. The Gadites who came to David were resembled to lions, and their swiftness was compared to that of the gazelle (1 Chronicles 12:8–15), these qualities identified a strong tribe.

Jacob’s prophecy on Asher points to the fruitful soil that was to be Asher’s future territory. In fulfillment of this prophecy, Asher took as his inheritance the lowlands of Carmel on the Mediterranean, as far as the territory of Tyre. This was one of the most fertile lands of Canaan, rich in wheat and oil, with which Solomon used to provide for the household of King Hiram (1 Kings 5:11).

Legacy and Historical Context

Zilpah’s legacy is intertwined with the broader historical and cultural context of the ancient Near East. Her story sheds light on the societal norms of the time, where the role of handmaids and concubines was culturally accepted. Despite her initially subordinate position, Zilpah’s significance lies in her contribution to the formation of the twelve tribes, which become the foundation of the nation of Israel.


While Zilpah’s role in the Bible may not be as central as other figures, her story adds depth to the narrative of Jacob and his family. Through her union with Jacob and the birth of Gad and Asher, Zilpah becomes an integral part of the lineage that shapes the destiny of the twelve tribes of Israel. Her story invites readers to reflect on themes of faith, family, and the unfolding of God’s plan in unexpected ways.

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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