Why were the 12 tribes represented by gems on the breast plate of the High priest?


By BibleAsk Team

The breastplate of the High Priest, also known as the breastplate of judgment or the breastplate of Aaron, is a sacred garment described in the Bible that played a significant role in the religious rituals of ancient Israel. One of its prominent features was the setting of twelve gemstones, each representing one of the twelve tribes of Israel. This essay will explore the symbolism, significance, and biblical references associated with the gemstones on the breastplate of the High Priest.

The Breastplate of the High Priest

The breastplate of the High Priest was a component of the priestly attire worn by the High Priest of Israel during religious ceremonies. It was made of finely woven linen and adorned with various precious materials, including gold, blue, purple, and scarlet threads. The breastplate was worn over the ephod, another sacred garment, and was fastened with shoulder straps.

Description of the Gemstones (Exodus 28:15-21; Exodus 39:8-14)

The Bible provides detailed descriptions of the gemstones mounted on the breastplate of the High Priest. According to Exodus 28:17-21, each gemstone was set in a gold setting and inscribed with the name of one of the twelve tribes of Israel. The gemstones are listed as follows:”

  •  “And you shall put settings of stones in it, four rows of stones: The first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and an emerald; this shall be the first row; the second row shall be a turquoise, a sapphire, and a diamond; the third row, a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; and the fourth row, a beryl, an [d]onyx, and a jasper” (verses 17-20).
These gemstones were arranged in four rows of three stones each, symbolizing the twelve tribes of Israel. The breastplate served as a tangible representation of the unity and identity of the twelve tribes before God.

Symbolism of the Gemstones

The gemstones adorning the breastplate of the High Priest in Exodus 28:17-20 carry deep symbolic significance, representing the twelve tribes of Israel before God. Each stone in its unique color, texture, and characteristics reflects the distinctiveness of each tribe while also conveying broader spiritual truths.

  1. Sardius, Topaz, and Emerald (First Row):
    • Sardius (ruby) symbolizes strength and vitality, reflecting the enduring nature of God’s covenant with Israel.
    • Topaz signifies purity and clarity, representing the tribe’s commitment to righteousness and spiritual insight.
    • Emerald (or carbuncle) represents renewal and growth, signifying the tribe’s capacity for regeneration and spiritual transformation.
  2. Turquoise, Sapphire, and Diamond (Second Row):
    • Turquoise may symbolize protection and healing, reflecting God’s watchful care over the tribe.
    • Sapphire represents wisdom and divine revelation, signifying the tribe’s pursuit of knowledge and understanding of God’s law.
    • Diamond (or onyx) signifies stability and steadfastness, representing the tribe’s faithfulness and loyalty to God.
  3. Jacinth, Agate, and Amethyst (Third Row):
    • Jacinth (or beryl) symbolizes beauty and harmony, reflecting the tribe’s appreciation for God’s creation and aesthetic excellence.
    • Agate signifies protection and security, representing God’s watchful care and provision for the tribe.
    • Amethyst represents spiritual insight and discernment, signifying the tribe’s ability to perceive God’s will and purpose.
  4. Beryl, Onyx, and Jasper (Fourth Row):
    • Beryl may symbolize purity and transparency, reflecting the tribe’s integrity and moral uprightness.
    • Onyx signifies stability and reliability, representing the tribe’s steadfastness in fulfilling its divine calling.
    • Jasper symbolizes strength and endurance, signifying the tribe’s resilience and perseverance in the face of challenges.

Overall, the gemstones on the breastplate of the High Priest serve as a visual reminder of the unity and diversity of the twelve tribes of Israel, each uniquely valued and cherished by God. They also convey spiritual truths about God’s faithfulness, provision, and guidance throughout Israel’s journey as a chosen people.

The Significance of the Twelve Tribes

The twelve tribes of Israel held a central place in the religious and social identity of ancient Israel. According to biblical tradition, the twelve tribes were descendants of the twelve sons of Jacob (Israel), who became the patriarchs of distinct tribal groups. Each tribe had its own territory, leaders, and responsibilities within the community of Israel.

The breastplate of the High Priest served as a symbolic representation of the entire nation of Israel, with each gemstone bearing the name of one of the tribes. It reinforced the sense of unity and solidarity among the tribes, reminding them of their common heritage and shared covenant with God.

The Role of the High Priest

The High Priest held a central role in Israelite religious life, serving as the mediator between God and the people. He was responsible for performing various rituals and sacrifices on behalf of the nation, including those associated with the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). The breastplate of the High Priest was worn during these sacred ceremonies, symbolizing the High Priest’s representation of the entire community before God.

Interpretations and Allegorical Meanings

The gemstones on the breastplate of the High Priest have been interpreted in various ways throughout history, with some scholars suggesting allegorical or spiritual meanings associated with each stone. For example, early Christian theologians such as Origen and Jerome proposed symbolic interpretations of the gemstones in relation to virtues, gifts of the Holy Spirit, or aspects of Christ’s character.

Additionally, the New Testament book of Revelation describes a heavenly city adorned with precious gemstones, which some interpreters have connected with the imagery of the breastplate of the High Priest, suggesting eschatological or symbolic significance beyond its historical context.

Archaeological and Historical Context

The breastplate of the High Priest and its gemstones have captured the imagination of historians, archaeologists, and biblical scholars for centuries. While the actual breastplate described in the Bible has not been discovered, archaeological evidence from ancient Near Eastern cultures provides insights into the use of gemstones and precious materials in religious rituals and regalia.

Ancient texts and artifacts from Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other civilizations of the region attest to the cultural significance of gemstones and their association with divine power, protection, and symbolism. The breastplate of the High Priest reflects this broader cultural context while also embodying the unique religious traditions of ancient Israel.

Spiritual Lessons and Applications

Beyond its historical and symbolic significance, the breastplate of the High Priest holds spiritual lessons and applications for believers today. The unity and diversity represented by the twelve tribes of Israel serve as a reminder of the richness and complexity of God’s people, who are called to live in harmony and mutual respect despite differences in background, culture, or tradition.

The gemstones on the breastplate also evoke themes of spiritual growth, character formation, and divine favor, prompting believers to reflect on their own relationship with God and their identity as members of a royal priesthood (1 Peter 2:9). As living stones in the spiritual temple of God (1 Peter 2:5), believers are called to embody the virtues and qualities represented by the gemstones—faith, purity, wisdom, and righteousness—in their daily lives.


In conclusion, the gemstones on the breastplate of the High Priest serve as a tangible symbol of the unity, identity, and spiritual significance of the twelve tribes of Israel. Embedded within the biblical history and tradition, these gemstones reflect the religious and theological context of ancient Israel. As we contemplate the symbolism of the gemstones, may we be reminded of our own identity as a chosen people, called to shine as lights in the world and reflect the glory of God’s kingdom.

    In His service,
    BibleAsk Team

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