Who wrote the first book in the Bible?


By BibleAsk Team

The book of Genesis stands as the opening chapter of the Bible, laying the foundation for the narrative of God’s creation of the world, the origins of humanity, and the early history of the chosen people of Israel. Throughout the centuries, scholars and theologians have debated the authorship of Genesis, seeking to unravel the identity of the individual or individuals responsible for its composition. In this exploration, we will delve into the textual evidence, historical context, and theological perspectives surrounding the authorship of Genesis, seeking to shed light on this enduring mystery of biblical scholarship.

The Traditional Attribution to Moses

For centuries, the traditional view within Judaism and Christianity has been to attribute the authorship of Genesis, along with the rest of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible), to Moses. This attribution is based primarily on internal textual evidence, as well as the testimony of later biblical writers and Jewish tradition.

1. Internal Textual Evidence

The book of Genesis contains numerous passages that suggest Mosaic authorship, including references to events and locations that Moses would have been familiar with during his lifetime. For example, Genesis 12:6-7 (NKJV) records:

Abraham passed through the land to the place of Shechem, as far as the terebinth tree of Moreh. And the Canaanites were then in the land. Then the Lord appeared to Abram and said, ‘To your descendants I will give this land.’ And there he built an altar to the Lord, who had appeared to him.”

These details suggest a familiarity with the geography and historical context of the ancient Near East, which would have been consistent with Moses’ background and experiences.

2. Later Biblical Testimony

Throughout the Old Testament, there are references to the law and commandments given by Moses, which are attributed to the book of the law (Torah). For example, Joshua 1:7-8 (NKJV) states:

“Only be strong and very courageous, that you may observe to do according to all the law which Moses My servant commanded you; do not turn from it to the right hand or to the left, that you may prosper wherever you go. This Book of the Law shall not depart from your mouth, but you shall meditate in it day and night, that you may observe to do according to all that is written in it. For then you will make your way prosperous, and then you will have good success.” This passage suggests a connection between the teachings of Moses and the book of the law, which includes the content found in Genesis.

Other Unbibliclal Theories

In contrast to the traditional view of Mosaic authorship, modern biblical scholarship has proposed alternative theories regarding the composition of Genesis, notably the Documentary Hypothesis, which lacks the Biblical support. According to this hypothesis, Genesis, along with the rest of the Pentateuch, is the result of a complex editorial process involving multiple sources and redactors over several centuries.

The Documentary Hypothesis posits that Genesis is comprised of four main literary sources: the Yahwist (J), Elohist (E), Priestly (P), and Deuteronomist (D) sources. These sources are thought to have originated from different time periods and theological perspectives, with the final composition of Genesis being the result of a process of compilation and editing.

In addition to the Documentary Hypothesis, other authorship theories that also lack the Biblical support have been proposed by some scholars, including the Fragmentary Hypothesis and the Supplementary Hypothesis. These theories offer alternative explanations for the composition of Genesis, suggesting that it may have originated from a combination of written sources, oral traditions, and editorial revisions.

Evaluating the Evidence

While the question of authorship remains a subject of debate and speculation among biblical scholars, there are several factors to consider when evaluating the evidence for the composition of Genesis.

1. Literary Unity and Coherence

Despite the presence of different sources and traditions within Genesis, the book exhibits a remarkable degree of literary unity and coherence, suggesting a unified editorial purpose behind its composition. The themes, motifs, and theological perspectives found throughout Genesis point to a cohesive narrative framework that reflects a singular theological vision.

2. Theological and Historical Context

The theological and historical context of Genesis provides important clues regarding its authorship and composition. The narratives and traditions preserved within Genesis reflect the religious and cultural milieu of ancient Israel, offering insights into the beliefs, practices, and worldview of the Israelite community.

Theological Significance of Genesis

Regardless of its human authorship, the book of Genesis holds profound theological significance for believers, serving as the foundational narrative of God’s redemptive plan for humanity. From the creation of the world to the establishment of the covenant with Abraham, Genesis lays the groundwork for the unfolding drama of salvation history, culminating in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

1. Creation and Covenant

At the heart of Genesis lies the theme of creation and covenant, as God establishes His covenantal relationship with humanity and calls forth a chosen people to be the bearers of His promise. The stories of Adam and Eve, Noah, Abraham, and the patriarchs illustrate God’s faithfulness to His covenantal promises despite human frailty and disobedience.

2. Salvation History

Genesis provides the theological framework for understanding the broader narrative of salvation history, tracing the unfolding drama of God’s redemptive plan from its inception in the garden of Eden to its fulfillment in the person of Jesus Christ. The themes of sin, redemption, and restoration found within Genesis foreshadow the ultimate victory of God over sin and death through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus.


In conclusion, the question of authorship captivates the minds of biblical scholars and theologians. While the traditional view attributes the authorship of Genesis to Moses, modern scholarship has proposed alternative theories regarding its composition, notably the Documentary Hypothesis, which lack the Biblical support. Regardless of its human authorship, Genesis holds enduring theological significance as the foundational narrative of God’s redemptive plan for humanity, inviting believers to explore the mysteries of creation, covenant, and salvation history contained within its pages.

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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