Who was Nathanael in the New Testament?


By BibleAsk Team


Nathanael, a figure mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible, plays a somewhat understated yet crucial role in the narrative of Jesus’ ministry. Often identified with Bartholomew, his encounters with Jesus offer profound insights into the nature of faith, skepticism, and the divine knowledge that transcends human understanding.

Identity and Associations

Nathanael is primarily mentioned in the Gospel of John, where he is introduced as a disciple of Jesus. Interestingly, he is often identified with Bartholomew, another disciple listed in the synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke). The name Nathanael appears only in the Gospel of John, while Bartholomew is not mentioned in John’s account. This has led scholars to infer that Nathanael and Bartholomew may refer to the same person.

In the list of disciples provided in the Gospel of John (ch. 21:2), this disciple is paired with the apostle Philip, suggesting a close relationship between the two. Additionally, he is associated with the town of Cana in Galilee (John 21:2), emphasizing his geographical connection to the region where Jesus performed his first recorded miracle.

The Encounter with Jesus

Nathanael’s significance becomes apparent in the narrative of his initial encounter with Jesus, as recorded in John 1:45-51. When Philip excitedly informs Nathanael about finding the Messiah in the person of Jesus of Nazareth, this disciple expresses skepticism. His doubt arises from the perceived incongruity between the Messiah’s divine origin and Jesus’ humble background as a Nazarene.

Philip’s response is simple yet profound: “Come and see.” This invitation encapsulates the essence of faith – an invitation to experience and witness the transformative power of encountering Jesus personally.

As this disciple approaches, Jesus perceives his doubt and comments on his character with a surprising revelation: “Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no deceit!” (John 1:47, NKJV). The disciple, astonished, inquires how Jesus knows him, to which Jesus responds cryptically, “Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you” (John 1:48, NKJV).

This revelation triggers a profound confession from Nathanael, affirming Jesus as “the Son of God” and “the King of Israel” (John 1:49, NKJV). Jesus’ supernatural knowledge of Nathanael’s unseen moments under the fig tree serves as a catalyst for the disciple’s acknowledgment of Jesus’ divinity.

Under the Fig Tree: Symbolism and Interpretations

The reference to Nathanael being under the fig tree has sparked various interpretations among scholars. Some suggest that it symbolizes a place of private meditation, prayer, or study of the Scriptures. Others propose that it could represent a moment of personal crisis or decision in the disciple’s life. Regardless of the specific nature of the fig tree encounter, it serves as a powerful illustration of Jesus’ omniscience and his ability to see into the depths of the human heart.

The fig tree motif appears elsewhere in the Bible, notably in the Old Testament, where it symbolizes peace, prosperity, and the blessings of God (Micah 4:4, Zechariah 3:10). The connection between Nathanael’s encounter under the fig tree and Jesus’ acknowledgment underscores the transformative nature of divine insight and recognition.

Nathanael’s Role in the Apostolic Church

While Nathanael’s interactions with Jesus are spotlighted in the early stages of the Gospels, he is not extensively mentioned in the subsequent narratives. However, tradition holds that he continued to play a vital role in the apostolic community after Jesus’ ascension. Some accounts attribute missionary activities to Nathanael, suggesting that he traveled to India to spread the message of Christ. Nevertheless, these traditions lack explicit biblical support.


It’s worth noting that the apostle Bartholomew, often identified with Nathanael, is traditionally believed to have been martyred for his faith. Accounts vary, with some suggesting crucifixion and others more gruesome forms of execution. While the details of Nathanael’s later life are shrouded in uncertainty, his initial encounter with Jesus leaves an indelible mark on the biblical narrative.


Nathanael’s journey from skepticism to profound confession highlights the transformative power of encountering Jesus. His association with Bartholomew and the geographical context of Cana deepen our understanding of the socio-cultural backdrop of the events. The symbolic significance of the fig tree encounter underscores the depth of Jesus’ knowledge and his ability to draw individuals into a personal relationship with him.

As we reflect on Nathanael’s story, we are challenged to examine our own doubts and preconceptions, recognizing that Jesus invites us, like Nathanael, to come and see. In a world marked by skepticism and uncertainty, this disciple stands as a reminder that true faith emerges when we encounter Jesus personally and allow his transformative power to shape our lives.

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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