Who was Jacobus Arminius?


By BibleAsk Team

Jacobus Arminius

Jacobus Arminius, also known as James Arminius, was a Dutch theologian who lived in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. He is best known for his theological views, which have come to be known as Arminianism, and his influence on Protestant theology.

Jacobus Arminius was born on October 10, 1560, in Oudewater, the Netherlands. Little is known about his early life, but he was raised in the Reformed tradition and received a solid theological education. He studied theology at the University of Leiden under the prominent Calvinist theologian Theodore Beza, who was a successor to John Calvin himself. Beza’s teachings had a significant influence on Arminius’s theological development.

After completing his studies, Arminius served as a pastor in various churches in Amsterdam, which were deeply rooted in the Reformed tradition. During his time in ministry, he became increasingly troubled by certain aspects of Calvinist theology, particularly its teachings on predestination and the sovereignty of God.

Arminius’s theological journey took a significant turn when he began to question the Calvinist doctrine of predestination, which taught that God unconditionally elected some individuals to salvation while passing over others for damnation. He believed that this doctrine was inconsistent with the biblical portrayal of God’s character as loving, just, and merciful. He taught that the Scriptures say that God desires the salvation of all people and offers his grace to everyone, but individuals have the freedom to accept or reject it.

His questioning of Calvinist doctrine led to theological controversy within the Dutch Reformed Church, with his views coming into conflict with the dominant Calvinist orthodoxy of the time.

The Biblical Key Beliefs of Arminianism

Arminius’s theological views, which have come to be known as Arminianism, are characterized by several key beliefs:

  • Conditional Election: Arminius rejected the Calvinist doctrine of unconditional election and instead taught that God’s election is conditional upon foreknowledge. God, in his omniscience, foresees who will freely choose to believe in Christ and elects them accordingly (Romans 8:29).
  • Universal Atonement: Arminius affirmed the belief in a universal atonement, teaching that Christ died for the sins of all humanity, not just the elect (1 John 2:2). He argued that God’s grace is genuinely offered to all people, and salvation is available to anyone who believes.
  • Prevenient Grace: Arminius emphasized the concept of prevenient grace, which is the grace of God that precedes and enables human response to the gospel (John 6:44). He believed that fallen humanity, while still affected by sin, retains the ability to respond to God’s grace and choose to believe in Christ.
  • Human Free Will: Arminius affirmed the reality of human free will, arguing that individuals have the capacity to accept or reject the gospel message and cooperate with God’s grace in the process of salvation (Joshua 24:15). He rejected the Calvinist notion of irresistible grace, which teaches that God’s grace is efficacious only for the elect.
  • Perseverance of the Saints: Arminius taught a conditional view of the perseverance of the saints, arguing that believers have the ability to fall away from the faith through willful disobedience or unbelief (Hebrews 6:4-6). He believed that true believers can forfeit their salvation if they persist in rebellion against God.

Arminius grounded his theological views in Scripture, seeking to interpret the Bible faithfully and consistently. He appealed to numerous biblical passages to support his beliefs (ex. 1 Timothy 2:3-4; John 1:29; 6:37; 12:47; Matthew 11:28; Joshua 24:15; 2 Peter 3:9; 1 Timothy 4:10; Ezekiel 18:24, 32; Matthew 23:37; I Peter 2:8; 2 Peter 3:9; Jude 1:4; etc.), including those that emphasize God’s love for all people (John 3:16), the offer of salvation to whosoever believes (Romans 10:13), and the responsibility of individuals to respond to God’s grace (Acts 17:30).


Jacobus Arminius’s theological views sparked significant controversy within the Dutch Reformed Church and broader Protestant world during his lifetime. His teachings laid the groundwork for what would later become known as Arminianism, a theological tradition that has had a lasting impact on Protestant theology.

The Synod of Dort, convened by the Dutch Reformed Church in 1618-1619, condemned Arminius’s views as heretical and formulated the Five Points of Calvinism (TULIP) in response. Despite this opposition, Arminianism continued to gain followers and has remained a significant theological perspective within Protestantism to this day.


Jacobus Arminius was a Dutch theologian whose questioning of Calvinist doctrine led to the development of Arminianism, a theological tradition that emphasizes the teachings of human free will, conditional election, and the universality of God’s grace. Grounded in Scripture and a commitment to biblical authority, Arminius’s teachings have had a lasting influence on Protestant theology, shaping the beliefs and practices of numerous Christian denominations around the world.

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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