What took place at Vatican II? 


By BibleAsk Team

What took place at Vatican II? 

The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church held from 1962 to 1965. Convened by Pope John XXIII and continued under Pope Paul VI, it aimed to address relations between the Church and the modern world. Key outcomes included the promotion of liturgical reforms, allowing the use of vernacular languages in the Mass instead of Latin, a renewed emphasis on the role of the laity, and a commitment to ecumenism and interfaith dialogue. The council produced significant documents, such as Lumen Gentium on the nature of the Church and Gaudium et Spes on the Church’s role in the contemporary world, which have profoundly influenced Catholic theology and practice.

The Decisions   

The main goal of Vatican II was adapting Roman Catholicism to the modern world. Vatican II brought some major changes to the Roman Church’s mass. It was decided that it would no longer be read in Latin but in the language of the people. And to have the priests face the congregation instead of facing the alter.

New types of music were encouraged with singing. Women were now allowed to participate as readers, lectors, and Eucharistic ministers, and as altar servers in some places. The church decided that they will no longer forbid Catholic attendance at Protestant services or reading from a Protestant Bible. In addition, the church developed orientation to the non-Catholics and Jews and opened up dialogue with them.  

What are the three main points of Vatican II?

The three main points of Vatican II can be summarized as follows:

  1. Liturgical Reforms: Vatican II introduced significant changes to the liturgy to make it more accessible and participatory for the faithful. The most notable reform was the allowance of vernacular languages in the Mass instead of Latin. This change aimed to foster greater understanding and active participation among congregants. The council also encouraged a greater emphasis on scripture and lay involvement in the liturgical celebrations.
  2. Ecumenism and Interfaith Dialogue: The council promoted efforts toward Christian unity and dialogue with other religions. Vatican II emphasized the importance of working towards reconciliation and understanding among different Christian denominations and fostering respectful dialogue with non-Christian religions. This was articulated in documents such as Unitatis Redintegratio (Decree on Ecumenism) and Nostra Aetate (Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions).
  3. The Role of the Church in the Modern World: Vatican II sought to address the Church’s relationship with the contemporary world. It emphasized the Church’s mission to engage with and respond to modern social, cultural, and political issues. The council’s document Gaudium et Spes (Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World) highlights the Church’s commitment to human dignity, social justice, and peace, calling for active involvement in addressing the needs and challenges of the modern world.

No Doctrinal Change 

While Vatican II tried to have a new relation to the modern world, it made no doctrinal change. Reformed theologian Loraine Boettner, who carefully examined the council’s effects, wrote in the preface of his book Roman Catholicism that Vatican II,

“repeated the claim that the Roman Catholic Church is the only true church, although it did recognize that other churches contain some elements of truth. . . . Pope John XXIII, who called the first session, and Pope Paul VI, who presided over the later sessions (as well as several prominent cardinals and theologians), took care to emphasize that no changes would be made in the doctrinal structure of the Church. However, Pope Paul did promulgate one new doctrine, which asserts that “Mary is the Mother of the Church.” The primary purpose of the Council was to update the liturgy and administrative practices and so to make the Church more efficient and more acceptable to the 20th century world.” 

“On previous occasions, Rome has changed her tactics when old methods became ineffective, but she has never changed her nature. In any religious organization, doctrine is the most basic and important part of its structure, since what people believe determines what they do. An official document, “The Constitution on the Church” prepared by the Council and approved by the Pope, reaffirms basic Catholic doctrine precisely as it stood before the Council met. . . . “

“If the Roman Catholic Church were reformed according to Scripture, it would have to be abandoned. But the gross errors concerning salvation still remain. Moreover, the Council did nothing toward removing the more than one hundred anathemas or curses pronounced by the Council of Trent on the Protestant churches and belief.”  

Boettner concluded that Vatican II: 

“makes it abundantly clear that Rome has no intention of revising any of her basic doctrine, but only of updating her methods and techniques for more efficient administration and to present a more attractive appearance. This is designed to make it easier for the Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Protestant churches to return to her fold. There is no indication that she has any intentions of entering into genuine give-and-take church unity negotiations.” 

“Her purpose is not union, but absorption. Church union with Rome is strictly a one-way street. The age-old danger that Protestantism has faced from the Roman Church has not diminished; in fact, it may well have increased. For through this less offensive posture and this superficial ecumenicism, Rome is much better situated to carry out her program of eliminating opposition and moving into a position of world dominance. An infallible church simply cannot repent.” 

Why do some Catholics reject Vatican II?

Some Catholics reject Vatican II for several reasons, often rooted in concerns about the perceived changes and their impact on traditional practices and beliefs. These reasons include:

  1. Liturgical Reforms: The introduction of vernacular languages in the Mass and changes to the liturgy are seen by some as a departure from the sacredness and solemnity of the traditional Latin Mass.
  2. Theological Changes: Some believe that Vatican II introduced theological ambiguities or modernist ideas that diverge from established Church teachings.
  3. Ecumenism and Interfaith Dialogue: The council’s emphasis on ecumenism and dialogue with other religions is viewed by some as compromising the Catholic Church’s unique truth claims.
  4. Authority and Tradition: Critics argue that Vatican II undermined the authority of longstanding Church traditions and disciplines, leading to confusion and inconsistency in practices and teachings.
  5. Cultural Changes: The post-Vatican II era saw significant cultural and social changes within the Church, which some attribute to the council’s reforms, leading to a perceived decline in religious observance and discipline.

Groups such as the Society of St. Pius X (SSPX) have been particularly vocal in their rejection of Vatican II, seeking to preserve pre-conciliar traditions and practices.


In conclusion, Vatican II was a landmark ecumenical council that sought to rejuvenate the Roman Catholic Church’s approach to worship, theology, and its relationship with the modern world. It introduced significant liturgical reforms, promoted ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, and emphasized the Church’s active engagement with contemporary social issues. The council’s outcomes had an impact on Catholic practice and thought, fostering emphasis on inclusivity, understanding, and the active participation of the laity in the life of the Church.

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