What is Calamus in the Bible?


By BibleAsk Team


Calamus is a term that appears in the Bible, specifically in the Old Testament, in reference to a fragrant plant. This word is used to describe an aromatic reed or cane, and its mention in the Bible carries significance in the context of religious rituals and anointing oils. Let’s explore the occurrences of this word in the Bible and examine the historical and cultural contexts surrounding its usage.

Symbolism and Significance

This aromatic plant, carries symbolism in the Bible. Its presence in the anointing oil suggests a pleasing aroma, representing the spiritual fragrance of worship and consecration. The use of specific quantities and combinations of spices emphasizes the importance of precision and reverence in the worship rituals of the Israelites.

Bible References

The first biblical reference to calamus is found in the book of Exodus, where God provides Moses with instructions for creating the holy anointing oil. Exodus 30:22-25 (NKJV) states:

“Moreover the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: Also take for yourself quality spices—five hundred shekels of liquid myrrh, half as much sweet-smelling cinnamon (two hundred and fifty shekels), two hundred and fifty shekels of sweet-smelling cane (calamus), five hundred shekels of cassia, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, and a hin of olive oil.” In this passage, calamus is one of the components used in the preparation of the sacred anointing oil, symbolizing consecration and divine presence.

Another reference to calamus is found in the poetic and allegorical book of Song of Solomon 4:14 (NKJV), the beauty of the bride is compared to a garden:

“Spikenard and saffron, Calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense, Myrrh and aloes, With all the chief spices—” Here, this word is mentioned alongside other fragrant plants, contributing to the imagery of a luxuriant and aromatic garden. The use of calamus in this context adds to the sensory richness of the poetic language.

Botanical Identification

While this term is used in biblical translations, there has been debate among scholars and botanists about the precise identification of the plant referred to in the original Hebrew. Some suggest that the word mentioned in the Bible may be the sweet flag (Acorus calamus), a wetland plant with fragrant rhizomes. Others propose alternative identifications, highlighting the challenges of botanical translation and interpretation across languages and centuries.

Cultural Context

Understanding the cultural and historical context is crucial for interpreting biblical references. In the ancient Near East, aromatic substances held great value in religious ceremonies, symbolizing purity, holiness, and the divine presence. The careful preparation of anointing oils, including calamus, underscored the sacredness of the rituals and the importance of reverence in approaching the divine.

Modern Interpretation

In modern times, the significance of calamus in the Bible continues to be a subject of theological and botanical discussion. Some interpret its presence as a reminder of the sensory aspects of worship, emphasizing the use of fragrance in spiritual practices. Others focus on the symbolic meaning of consecration and divine favor associated with the anointing oil.


Calamus in the Bible, particularly in Exodus and Song of Solomon, holds symbolic and cultural significance. Its use in the preparation of anointing oil underscores the importance of fragrance and consecration in religious rituals and their symbolic meanings. While the exact botanical identity of the biblical calamus remains debated, its role in scripture enriches our understanding of ancient worship practices and the symbolic language employed in the sacred texts. As we explore these passages in the Bible, we gain insights into the spiritual and cultural contexts that contribute to the enduring relevance of calamus in biblical interpretation.

In His service, 
BibleAsk Team 

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