Who was the Queen of Sheba in the Bible?

Author: BibleAsk Team

The Queen of Sheba

The Queen of Sheba emerges from the annals of biblical history. Mentioned in the Old Testament, particularly in the books of Kings and Chronicles, the Queen of Sheba’s narrative spans across centuries, leaving an indelible mark on religious, historical, and cultural discourse. This exploration seeks to unravel facts surrounding the Queen of Sheba, examining her biblical significance, historical context, and cultural impact.

Biblical Accounts: The primary biblical accounts of the Queen of Sheba are found in the books of 1 Kings 10:1-2 and 2 Chronicles 9:1-12. According to these scriptures, the Queen journeyed to Jerusalem to test the wisdom of King Solomon. Impressed by Solomon’s unparalleled wisdom, opulent court, and grandeur, she bestowed upon him lavish gifts, including spices, gold, and precious stones. The biblical narrative is steeped in poetic imagery, depicting the Queen’s visit as a spectacle of wealth, wisdom, and exotic treasures.

Identity and Origins: The identity and origins of the Queen of Sheba remain subjects of scholarly debate. The Bible describes her as the Queen of the South, with Sheba often associated with the region of modern-day Ethiopia or Yemen. Some scholars propose that Sheba could be related to the ancient kingdom of Saba in southern Arabia, renowned for its wealth and trade. Others suggest an African connection, pointing to the kingdom of Axum in Ethiopia.

Cultural Impact: The Queen of Sheba’s story extends beyond biblical texts, permeating various cultures and traditions. In Ethiopian tradition, she is known as Makeda, and her encounter with Solomon is a prominent part of Ethiopian lore. The Kebra Nagast, an Ethiopian religious text, expands on the biblical narrative, claiming that the Queen of Sheba bore Solomon a son, Menelik I, who later became the founder of the Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia.

Artistic Depictions: Artistic representations of the Queen of Sheba abound in various forms, from paintings and sculptures to literature and music. Renaissance artists, such as Piero della Francesca and Tintoretto, depicted her as a symbol of exotic beauty and regal sophistication. The tale has inspired countless poets, including Alfred Lord Tennyson and Rudyard Kipling, who captured the mystique of the Queen in their verses.

Historical Considerations: While the Queen of Sheba’s existence is firmly rooted in biblical narratives, historical evidence validating her identity is scarce. Some historians posit that she might have been a ruler or queen of a prosperous kingdom engaged in trade with Solomon’s realm. Archaeological discoveries in southern Arabia and Ethiopia have unearthed artifacts supporting the existence of wealthy, trade-centric societies during the biblical period, adding a layer of historical plausibility to the narrative.

Trade and Commerce: The biblical account emphasizes the Queen’s opulent gifts, including spices, gold, and precious stones. This aligns with historical evidence pointing to the flourishing trade routes connecting the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, and the Mediterranean during ancient times. Her wealth, as depicted in the Bible, may be indicative of the prosperity derived from such trade networks.

Symbolism in Judaism and Christianity: In Jewish and Christian traditions, this Queen is often regarded as a seeker of wisdom. Her journey to Solomon is seen as an allegory for the pursuit of divine understanding. The New Testament references her visit in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, where Jesus uses her example to highlight the importance of seeking wisdom.

Conclusion: The Queen of Sheba, an elusive and compelling figure, continues to captivate the human imagination through biblical narratives, cultural traditions, and artistic expressions. Whether as a symbol of opulence, wisdom, or the quest for divine understanding, her legacy endures, transcending time and cultural boundaries.


  1. The Holy Bible, New International Version.
  2. The Kebra Nagast: The Glory of Kings, translated by E. A. Wallis Budge.
  3. Curtis, E. Lewis. “Queen of Sheba.” Encyclopaedia Britannica, www.britannica.com/biography/Queen-of-Sheba.
  4. Habel, N. C. “The Queen of Sheba: Its Significance for Ethiopian Studies.” Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, 1963, pp. 46-53.
  5. Ziggioto, C. “The Queen of Sheba in Christian Art.” Religions, vol. 12, no. 9, 2021, p. 702.

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In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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