Does the Bible speak against the use of perfumes?


By BibleAsk Team

Perfumes in the Bible

The use of perfumes and fragrances has been a part of human culture for millennia, with various civilizations and religious traditions incorporating aromatic substances for ceremonial, medicinal, and aesthetic purposes. In the context of the Bible, while there are no explicit prohibitions against the use of perfumes, there are passages that caution against vanity, excess, and misplaced priorities. In this exploration, we will delve into the biblical perspective on the use of perfumes, drawing upon key passages from the Bible to discern their significance and implications.

Symbolism of Fragrance

Throughout the Bible, fragrances and perfumes are often used symbolically to convey spiritual truths and moral principles. In 2 Corinthians 2:14-16, the apostle Paul employs the imagery of fragrance to illustrate the transformative power of Christ’s gospel: “Now thanks be to God who always leads us in triumph in Christ, and through us diffuses the fragrance of His knowledge in every place.” Here, the aroma of Christ’s gospel is likened to a sweet fragrance that permeates the world, signifying the impact of the message of salvation.

Similarly, in Ephesians 5:1-2, believers are exhorted to walk in love and imitate God, “And walk in love, as Christ also has loved us and given Himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling aroma.” This passage underscores the spiritual significance of sacrificial love and devotion, likening it to a pleasing fragrance that ascends to God.

Biblical Examples of Perfume Usage

While there are no explicit commands regarding the use of perfumes in the Bible, there are instances where fragrances are associated with acts of reverence, hospitality, and anointing. In John 12:3, Mary of Bethany anoints Jesus’ feet with costly spikenard perfume, an act of profound devotion and worship: “Then Mary took a pound of very costly oil of spikenard, anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped His feet with her hair. And the house was filled with the fragrance of the oil.”

Additionally, in the Old Testament, fragrant spices and perfumes were used in the preparation of incense for the tabernacle and temple rituals. Exodus 30:34-35 describes the ingredients of the sacred incense, including spices such as stacte, onycha, and galbanum, as well as frankincense and myrrh. These aromatic substances were considered holy and were used in worship as offerings to God.

Caution Against Vanity and Excess

While the Bible acknowledges the legitimate use of perfumes and fragrances, it also cautions against vanity, pride, and excessive adornment. In Isaiah 3:16-24, the prophet denounces the extravagant attire and adornments of the women of Jerusalem, including perfumes, jewelry, and elaborate hairstyles. Verse 24 warns, “And so it shall be: Instead of a sweet smell there will be a stench; instead of a sash, a rope; instead of well-set hair, baldness; instead of a rich robe, a girding of sackcloth; and branding instead of beauty.”

Similarly, in 1 Timothy 2:9-10, Paul admonishes women to adorn themselves modestly, “in proper clothing, with modesty and self-control, not with braided hair and gold or pearls or costly attire, but with what is proper for women who profess godliness—with good works.” This passage emphasizes the importance of inner beauty and spiritual adornment over external embellishments.

Focus on Inner Transformation

Ultimately, the biblical emphasis is on inner transformation and spiritual renewal rather than outward appearance or material adornment. 1 Peter 3:3-4 encourages believers to cultivate a gentle and quiet spirit, which is precious in the sight of God: “Do not let your adornment be merely outward—arranging the hair, wearing gold, or putting on fine apparel— rather let it be the hidden person of the heart, with the incorruptible beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is very precious in the sight of God.”

Similarly, Proverbs 27:9 extols the value of genuine friendship and heartfelt counsel over superficial flattery: “Ointment and perfume delight the heart, and the sweetness of a man’s friend gives delight by hearty counsel.” Here, the fragrance of genuine friendship is contrasted with the fleeting allure of external adornments.

Cultural and Contextual Considerations

It’s important to consider the cultural and contextual factors that shape the biblical perspective on perfume usage. In ancient Near Eastern societies, perfumes and fragrances were valued for their aesthetic, medicinal, and religious significance. They were often associated with luxury, status, and hospitality, as seen in the biblical accounts of anointing and hospitality practices.

However, the Bible also warns against the dangers of idolatry and spiritual adultery, wherein material possessions and sensual pleasures are elevated above devotion to God. In Hosea 2:13, the prophet rebukes Israel for her faithlessness and idolatry, declaring, “I will punish her for the days of the Baals to which she burned incense. She decked herself with her earrings and jewelry, and went after her lovers; but Me she forgot,” highlighting the spiritual consequences of misplaced priorities and idolatrous worship.


In conclusion, while the Bible does not explicitly prohibit the use of perfumes, it cautions against vanity, excess, and misplaced priorities. Fragrances and perfumes can serve as symbols of devotion, hospitality, and reverence when used in accordance with biblical principles of modesty, humility, and spiritual adornment.

Ultimately, the focus of the biblical message is on inner transformation and spiritual renewal, rather than external adornment or material possessions. By cultivating a gentle and quiet spirit, and adorning oneself with the incorruptible beauty of good works, believers can reflect the fragrance of Christ’s love and grace in their lives.

Check out our Bible Answers page for more information on a variety of topics.

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

We'd love your feedback, so leave a comment!

If you feel an answer is not 100% Bible based, then leave a comment, and we'll be sure to review it.
Our aim is to share the Word and be true to it.