Does Ezekiel 37:22 predict the Jews return?


By BibleAsk Team

Ezekiel 37:22 has been a subject of interpretation and debate among scholars, particularly regarding its relevance to the return of the Jews to Israel in the 19th century. While some argue for its applicability to the modern Zionist movement, a deeper examination within the historical and literary context of the book of Ezekiel suggests that the verse primarily pertains to the post-exilic return of the Israelites. This essay aims to explore Ezekiel 37:22 in its broader context, delving into the historical, cultural, and theological elements that support the interpretation of the verse in relation to the Babylonian exile and subsequent restoration.

Historical Background of Ezekiel 37:22

To understand the significance of Ezekiel 37:22, it is crucial to grasp the historical backdrop against which the prophet Ezekiel ministered. The Babylonian exile marked a pivotal period in Israel’s history, during which the people were deported from their homeland and dispersed throughout the Babylonian empire. The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple in 586 BCE led to a profound crisis of faith and identity among the Israelites.

Literary Context

Ezekiel, a priest and prophet, received his call during the exile and ministered to the exiled community in Babylon. The book of Ezekiel is characterized by its vivid imagery, symbolic actions, and oracles of judgment and restoration. Throughout the book, Ezekiel emphasizes the themes of sin, judgment, and the eventual restoration of Israel.


Ezekiel 37 depicts the vision of the valley of dry bones, symbolizing the restoration of Israel from a state of spiritual and national death to renewed life and vitality. Verse 22 specifically states: “and I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel; and one king shall be king over them all; they shall no longer be two nations, nor shall they ever be divided into two kingdoms again.”

Unity of the Nation

The language of “one nation” in Ezekiel 37:22 signifies the reunification of the divided kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Following the death of Solomon, the kingdom split into the northern kingdom of Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah. The promise of one nation under one king echoes the longing for national unity and sovereignty among the exiled Israelites.

Restoration of Monarchy

The mention of “one king” in Ezekiel 37:22 alludes to the restoration of the Davidic monarchy. Despite the fall of the Davidic dynasty and the absence of a reigning king during the exile, Ezekiel prophesies the reinstatement of kingship under a descendant of David. This expectation finds fulfillment in the post-exilic period with the establishment of Persian-appointed governors and later, the Hasmonean and Herodian rulers.

Prohibition of Division

The declaration that “they shall no longer be two nations” emphasizes the permanence of national unity and the cessation of division among the Israelites. This pronouncement directly addresses the historical reality of the divided kingdoms and anticipates their reunification under divine sovereignty.

Post-Exilic Fulfillment

The fulfillment of Ezekiel’s prophecy unfolds gradually in the post-exilic period, as the Israelites return from Babylonian captivity and reestablish themselves in the land of Israel. The rebuilding of the temple under the leadership of Zerubbabel, the restoration of the sacrificial system, and the reconstitution of Jewish identity contribute to the realization of Ezekiel’s vision of restoration.

Selective Interpretation

Evangelical Christians sometimes cherry-pick verses from the Old Testament, including prophecies from books like Ezekiel, Isaiah, and Jeremiah, to construct a narrative that aligns with their support for the modern state of Israel. For instance, they may highlight passages about the restoration of Israel without considering the historical and contextual nuances of these prophecies.

Evangelical Christians often interpret biblical prophecies, including those from the post-exilic era, through a lens that supports the Zionist movement, particularly regarding the return of Jews to Israel in the 19th and 20th centuries. However, a critical examination of these interpretations reveals potential errors and misunderstandings in their application of scripture.

Evangelical interpretations often overlook the historical backdrop of biblical prophecies, particularly those from the post-exilic era. The return of the Jews from Babylonian exile under Cyrus the Great and the subsequent restoration period under Persian rule had specific geopolitical and religious implications that cannot be directly equated with modern events.


In conclusion, one common error by evnaglicals is the direct application of post-exilic prophecies to contemporary geopolitical events. While there may be symbolic parallels between ancient Israel and modern Israel, it’s important to recognize the distinct historical contexts and fulfillments of these prophecies.

Ezekiel 37:22 is best understood in the context of the post-exilic return of the Israelites from Babylonian captivity. The verse encapsulates the prophet’s vision of national restoration, unity, and the reinstatement of the Davidic monarchy. A careful analysis of the historical and literary context of Ezekiel supports the view that the verse primarily pertains to the post-captivity return rather than the 19th-century Zionist movement.

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