Can salvation be lost according to John 15?


By BibleAsk Team

The question of whether salvation can be lost is a deeply theological one that needs to clarified. John 15 is one of the key passages that some theologians and scholars refer to when discussing this issue.

Context of John 15

John 15 is part of Jesus’ Farewell Discourse, where He speaks to His disciples about His impending departure, the coming of the Holy Spirit, and the importance of abiding in Him. This chapter specifically uses the metaphor of the vine and the branches to describe the relationship between Jesus and His followers.

NKJV Text (John 15:1-8):

  1. John 15:1-2: “I am the true vine, and My Father is the vinedresser. Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit He takes away; and every branch that bears fruit He prunes, that it may bear more fruit.”
  2. John 15:3-4: “You are already clean because of the word which I have spoken to you. Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in Me.”
  3. John 15:5-6: “I am the vine, you are the branches. He who abides in Me, and I in him, bears much fruit; for without Me you can do nothing. If anyone does not abide in Me, he is cast out as a branch and is withered; and they gather them and throw them into the fire, and they are burned.”
  4. John 15:7-8: “If you abide in Me, and My words abide in you, you will ask what you desire, and it shall be done for you. By this My Father is glorified, that you bear much fruit; so you will be My disciples.”

Analysis of Key Verses

1. The Vine and the Branches

John 15:1-2: Jesus begins by establishing Himself as the “true vine” and God the Father as the “vinedresser.” He then makes a critical point: “Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit He takes away.” This phrase suggests that there are branches (believers) in Jesus who may be taken away if they do not bear fruit. The act of taking away implies a form of judgment or removal.

John 15:5-6: These verses further clarify the consequences of not abiding in Jesus. Jesus states, “If anyone does not abide in Me, he is cast out as a branch and is withered; and they gather them and throw them into the fire, and they are burned.” The imagery of being cast out, withered, and burned is often interpreted as a symbol of divine judgment, indicating a severe consequence for not remaining in Christ.

2. Abiding in Christ

John 15:4: “Abide in Me, and I in you.” This verse emphasizes the mutual relationship required for spiritual vitality and fruitfulness. The command to “abide” suggests a continual, active process of remaining in Christ. The implication is that failure to abide results in separation from the source of life and nourishment.

John 15:7-8: Jesus promises that those who abide in Him and His words will have their prayers answered and will bear much fruit, glorifying the Father. The emphasis here is on the necessity of a persistent and dynamic relationship with Jesus for spiritual productivity and effectiveness.

Theological Implications

1. The Possibility of Apostasy

The metaphor of the vine and the branches in John 15 suggests the possibility of apostasy—falling away from the faith. The warning that branches (believers) can be taken away and cast into the fire if they do not bear fruit implies that continued spiritual fruitfulness is a requirement for remaining in Christ.

2. Conditional Security

The repeated command to “abide” in Jesus indicates that the security of the believer is conditional. While Jesus promises that those who abide in Him will bear much fruit and glorify God, the warning about being cast out and burned implies that failing to abide can result in losing one’s place in Christ.

3. The Role of Fruitfulness

The emphasis on bearing fruit as evidence of abiding in Christ highlights the importance of spiritual growth and obedience. Fruitfulness is not optional but a necessary demonstration of a genuine relationship with Jesus. The absence of fruit can lead to removal from the vine, indicating a loss of salvation.

Related NKJV Passages

To further support the argument that salvation can be lost, we can look at additional New Testament passages that echo the themes found in John 15.

Hebrews 6:4-6: “For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted the heavenly gift, and have become partakers of the Holy Spirit, and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the age to come, if they fall away, to renew them again to repentance, since they crucify again for themselves the Son of God, and put Him to an open shame.”

  • This passage warns of the dire consequences for those who have experienced the blessings of salvation but then fall away. The impossibility of renewing them to repentance underscores the seriousness of apostasy.

Hebrews 10:26-27: “For if we sin willfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, but a certain fearful expectation of judgment, and fiery indignation which will devour the adversaries.”

  • Willful persistent and continuous sin after receiving the truth leads to a loss of the sacrifice for sins, indicating a forfeiture of the benefits of Christ’s atonement and a fearful expectation of judgment.

2 Peter 2:20-22: “For if, after they have escaped the pollutions of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, they are again entangled in them and overcome, the latter end is worse for them than the beginning. For it would have been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than having known it, to turn from the holy commandment delivered to them. But it has happened to them according to the true proverb: ‘A dog returns to his own vomit,’ and, ‘a sow, having washed, to her wallowing in the mire.'”

  • This passage describes the tragic state of those who have known Christ but fall back into their former sinful ways. Their latter state is worse than their initial condition, suggesting a severe spiritual regression.

Theological Perspectives

Arminian Theology

Arminian theology, in contrast to Calvinist doctrine, supports the view that salvation can be lost through persistent unrepentant sin and apostasy. According to Arminianism, God’s grace enables free will, and believers must continue to choose to abide in Christ and live righteously.

Wesleyan Perspective

John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, also taught that believers could fall from grace. He emphasized the importance of holiness, perseverance, and the possibility of losing salvation through deliberate and persistent sin and failure to remain faithful.

Practical Implications for Believers

  1. Encouragement to Abide:
    • Believers are encouraged to actively remain in Christ, fostering a vibrant, ongoing relationship with Him through prayer, study of the Scriptures, and obedience to His commands.
  2. Importance of Fruitfulness:
    • Spiritual fruitfulness is essential as evidence of genuine faith. Believers should seek to grow in the fruits of the Spirit (Galatians 5:22-23) and engage in good works as a natural outflow of their faith.
  3. Awareness of Apostasy:
    • Christians should be aware of the dangers of falling away and take seriously the warnings in Scripture. Regular self-examination, accountability within the church community, and a commitment to holiness are vital in preventing apostasy.
  4. Dependence on God’s Grace:
    • While human effort is necessary, believers must also rely on God’s grace to sustain them. The Holy Spirit empowers and guides believers in their walk with Christ, helping them to remain faithful.


John 15 provides a strong biblical basis for the argument that salvation can be lost. Jesus’ metaphor of the vine and the branches, combined with His warnings about the consequences of not abiding in Him, suggests that continued faithfulness and fruitfulness are essential for maintaining one’s place in Christ. Additional New Testament passages, historical theological perspectives, and practical applications further support this view. Therefore, believers are encouraged to abide in Christ, bear spiritual fruit, and remain vigilant against the dangers of falling away.

For more on this topic, check: Can a Christian lose their salvation?

In His service,
BibleAsk Team

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